Method of performing Ablution (Wuzu)

When you want to perform ablution, follow these steps -:

The above is the method of performing Ablution. Out of these some actions are obligatory and if they were missed the ablution would not count. Some aspects are Sunnat and to miss deliberately would be an act of punishment. Some aspects are Mustahhab and to miss them would mean a reduction in reward.

Obligatory aspects of ablution (Wuzu)

There are four point in ablution that are obligatory.

  1. To wash the face . Meaning from the beginning of the forehead where hair starts growing upto the bottom of the chin. Also from one ear to the other ear. To ensure that the skin of the face is washed once leaving no part dry.
  2. To wash both hands upto and including the elbows once.
  3. To perform Masah of one quarter of the head. Meaning to run wet hands over a quarter of the head and at least so that the hair gets wet slightly.
  4. To wash both feet upto the ankles once.

The above four aspects are obligatory in ablution. Except for these, whatever methods have been reported are either Sunnat or Mustahhab. There are many Sunnats and Mustahabs in ablution and if you would like to know these in detail, then consult larger books such as 'Bahar-e-Shariat' or 'Fatawa-e Razvia'.

Makroohats (dislikes) of ablution

Meaning the aspects that should not be done in ablution.

  1. To perform ablution with .the leftover water of ablution or bath performed by a female.
  2. To spill water on a dirty place.
  3. To perform ablution inside the mosque.
  4. To spill used ablution water back into the bucket that contains the ablution water.
  5. To spit out water or mucus etc. towards Qibla.
  6. To talk of worldly things without cause.
  7. To waste water unnecessary.
  8. To use so little water so that all or some of the Sunnats would be missed.
  9. To wash the face with one hand.
  10. To throw water on the face.
  11. To let ablution water drops on clothing or inside the mosque.
  12. To miss any Sunnat of ablution.

Aspects that break the Ablution

  1. Excretion of stools
  2. Urinate
  3. To break wind from behind
  4. For worms or stones to be excreted from the front or rear
  5. For the leaking of semen water or sperm.
  6. For blood, puss to be released and for it to flow from it's position.
  7. For a mouthful of vomiting of food or water, or a slight amount of vomit of blood.
  8. To become insane or to pass out
  9. To faint
  10. To be drunk or lost in control so much that the feet stagger
  11. Except for the Namaz-e-Janaaza, to laugh so loud that the person standing next to you can hear you.
  12. To go to sleep.
  13. Mubashart-e-Fahisha (meaning, for a man to touch a woman's private parts with his erected penis with lust or to touch another man's private parts with his erected penis, or for a woman to touch another woman's private parts with her private parts without a cloth in between these parts.

In all the above situations the ablution (Wuzu) will break.

Method Of Bathing

The method of bathing is as follows;

  1. Perform the intention of bathing (Ghusl) then first of all wash the hands upto the wrists three times.
  2. Then wash the private parts, whether there is any impurity stuck on them or not.
  3. Then wash any part of the body which has impurity stuck on it.
  4. Then perform Wuzu as performed in Namaz but do not wash the feet. However, if you are sat on a stool or a stone etc. then wash the feet also.
  5. Then rub water into the body as you would rub oil.
  6. Then wash the right hand shoulder three times.
  7. Then wash the left hand shoulder three times.
  8. Then wash the head and all of the body three times.
  9. Then move away from the place of bathing and if you did not wash the feet when performing Wuzu, wash them now.

Do not face the Qibia when bathing. Ensure that you rub your hands with water all over the body whilst scrubbing. Do not bathe where someone can see you. If this is not possible then it is necessary for you to cover the body from the navel to the knees (for men). If this is not possible then perform Tayammum (see later text). Do not talk when bathing or pray any prayers. After bathing, to dry the body with a towel is perfectly allowed.

Three obligatory aspects of bathing

There are three obligatory aspects in bathing, and are as follows;

  1. To perform mouthwash so that every single part of the inside of the mouth from the beginning of the lips upto the throat is cleaned with water. Water must reach the gaps between the teeth, the gums, all the sides of the tongue and the edge of the throat. If you are not fasting then you must gargle so that the water reaches clearly all parts. If there is anything stuck in the teeth (like strands of meat. the skin of a betel nut, the leaf of a paan etc.) then unless is impossible to release or would cause serious pain it is necessary that they are removed, because without doing this the bath won't count and therefore the Namaz won't count.
  2. To clean the nose out with water. Meaning to suck up water into both nostrils until it reaches the bone, so that not even a hair or it's equivalent size remains dry, otherwise the bath will not count. If the nose is pierced then the water must reach the hole as this is also necessary. If mucus has dried in the nose then to release it is necessary and to wash the nostril hair is also necessary.
  3. To wash every single part of the body. Meaning to make sure water washes all the body upto and including the soles of the feet, ensuring that every hair and every pimple is washed, because even if only one hair or it's point's equivalent remains dry, the bath will not count.

Notice: A lot of people bathe by wearing an unclean cloth and think by bathing they will become clean and at the same time wash the cloth that they are wearing. This is not the case because when they rub their hands on it they actually spread the impurity all over and therefore make the whole body, cloth and the container of water unclean. This is why before bathing it is important to wash the impurity stuck on the body or on the clothing, otherwise they won't clean the body but in fact make everything that they touch unclean. This is possible if they are bathing in a river or sea and the impurity is such that it will flow away without the need for rubbing or scrubbing, if this is not so then it will remain a problem.

What aspects makes it obligatory to bathe

There are five aspects that make it obligatory for a person to have a bath, and they are as follows; -

  1. The ejaculation of sperm from it's place with lust.
  2. To have a wet dream. Meaning nocturnal emission that is the releasing of sperm whilst sleeping.
  3. The head of the penis to enter the vagina, whether it be with or without lust, with or without orgasm, the bathing would be obligatory on both.
  4. To become clean from menstrual pause (period).
  5. To become clean from blood after child birth.

Things that can and cannot be done when bathing is obligatory

Which wafer is allowed to bathe or perform ablution and which is not

Rainwater, sea water, ocean water, river water, stream water, canal water, well water, large pool or large lake or flowing water, snow and hailstone water is all allowed to be used to bathe or perform ablution or to clean impurities.

The rules and clarification of flowing water

The clarification of flowing water is the water that flows a piece of straw, this water is clean and can clean other things. The water will not become impure if some impurity is added in it, so as long as the water's colour, smell and taste does not change. If the colour, smell or taste is changed by the impurity then the water has become impure (napak). This water will now only become clean when the impurity reaches the bottom of the waterbed and all three aspects are reverted back to it's normal situation. Otherwise, there is more water added in which would flow the impurity away and/or change the colour, smell and taste back to normal. If the clean addition has changed the colour, smell and taste then you can perform Wuzu or Ghusl (ablution or bath) until the clean addition changes to impurity.

The rule and clarification of a large pool

Ten arms in length and ten arms in width where water is held in known as a 'Dadarda' or large pool. It is still counted if the length is twenty arms in length and five arms in width, or it is twenty five arms in length and four arms in width, meaning it is at least twenty arms square in total. If the pool is circular then it must be approximately thirty five arms in diameter and it does not have any part of the ground above water in that diameter, this is also counted as a large pool. It will not become impure by having impurities added in, until the colour, smell or taste does not change due to the impurity.

Rule of used water

The water that has fallen from performing ablution or bath is clean but is not allowed to be used to perform ablution or bath.

Advice on making use of the used water

If a hand is put into the water or you want to use the used water then the way of re-using it again is-to add fresh clean water more than the amount of water that is held in the container or to add clean water at one side so that the used water is flowed away, then you can use the new water to have a bath or perform ablution. If water is held in small pots and you are unaware of any impurities added in them, then ablution is allowed.

Water of a well.

(This section has been left out as it is not deemed necessary to learn this knowledge in this day and age and in these countries, such as UK America, Africa etc.)


Rules of impurity Ghaliza

There are two type of impurities, Ghaliza and Khafifa. If impurity Ghaliza gets on your clothes and is more in size than a Dirham (fifty pence piece), then to clean it is compulsory, without cleaning it your Namaz will not count. If the impurity on your clothes is the same size as a Dirham, then to clean it is necessary (Wajib) and therefore if Namaz is prayed, you must repeat it as the Namaz is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi and to pray it again is Wajib. If the impurity is less in size than a Dirham, then to clean it is Sunnat and if Namaz is prayed, it will count but is against the Sunnat and to repeat it is better.

Rules of impurity Khafifa

Whatever part of clothing impurity Khafifa gets stuck to (e.g. sleeve, collar, trouser leg'etc.) or part of the body (e.g. hand, arm, leg etc.) and if it is less than a quarter of the whole item. then the Namaz will count. If it is more than a quarter than the item, then without washing it the Namaz will not count [Alamgiri etc.].

What items are impurity Ghaliza

Whatever item is discharged from a person's body that would break the Wuzu or Ghusl is impurity Ghaliza. Such as faeces, urine, flowing blood, puss, mouthful vomit, blood from menstrual pause, blood from childbirth, blood discharge, sperm, semen (thin), water from a hurting eye, navel or stomach water-which comes out due to pain, flowing blood from any land animal whether Haram or Hala! including small reptiles blood such as lizards, fat of a dead animal, meat of a dead animal and any faeces or urine of a Haram four legged animal such as dog, cat, tiger, cheetah, vulture, fox, wolf, donkey, ass, elephant, pig and horse dung etc. Also faeces of any Halal four legged animal such as cow or buffalo dung, goat, camel, white antelope, stag, deer dung. also dung of those birds who do not fly high such as chicken, duck, whether they are large or small. Any type of alcohol or juice that would make someone lose their sense. Also faeces and urine of a snake and also meat of a wild snake and a wild frog who has flowing blood and whether they have been slaughtered and their skin whether it has been boiled. Also meat of a pig and it's bones, skin and hair whether it has been slaughtered. All of the above is impurity Ghaliza [Alamgiri etc.].

What items are impurity Khafifa

Whatever animal's meat is Halal, such as a cow, bull, buffalo, ram, goat, camel, white antelope etc. their urine and a horse's urine is impurity Khafifa. Also those bird's meat which is Haram (whether it be a bird of prey) such as crow, eagle, falcon, hawk etc. their droppings is impurity Khafifa [Hindiya etc.]. Milk of Haram animals is impurity Khafifa, however, milk of a female horse is clean but is not allowable for drinking [Bahar-e-Shariat]. The Halal birds that fly high such as, pigeon, dove, starling, water fowl, geese etc. their droppings are not impure.


Rule: Who's leftovers are clean ?

Human's leftovers (whether they are need of bathing or a woman who is on her menstrual cycle or still bleeding after childbirth) are clean [Khaniya, Hindiya).


If you have not performed ablution or in need of a bath but do not have access to water, the you must perform Tayammum. There are a few situations for not having access to water.

You have such an illness, that by using water to perform ablution or have a bath it will make the illness worse or would delay the recovery, and this is not just an assumption but you are sure about it. Either you have tried and found out about it or a pious Muslim doctor has given you this advice, then Tayammum is allowed.

  1. Where there is no sign or knowledge of water for a full square mile the Tayammum is allowed.
  2. The weather is so cold and you are truly confident that by bathing you will either die or get ill and you have no medicine available that will cure your cold, then Tayammum is allowed.
  3. You have the fear of an enemy that if they see you they will kill you or steal your possessions or you owe them money and are poor and they will get you imprisoned, the Tayammum is allowed. You see a snake near the water and fear that it will bite you, or you see a tiger and fear that it will maul you, or there is a bad person there who will rape you then Tayammum is allowed.
  4. You are in a jungle and have no bucket and rope that you can collect the water, then the Tayammum is allowed.
  5. You are thirsty and have water but are aware that if you use it for performing ablution or having a bath, you will suffer with thirst or you have an animal with (whether it be a dog which you are not allowed to keep) and are aware that it will suffer thirst or after some time, and your journey is a long one without knowledge that water may be available later, then Tayammum is allowed.
  6. The water to purchase is expensive. Meaning whatever the going price is the seller is asking for twice as much then Tayammum is allowed. However, if there is not a big difference, meaning less than double then Tayammum is not allowed.
  7. If by searching for water you will get lost from your group or you will miss your train, then Tayammum is allowed.
  8. You are in doubt that if you perform ablution with water you will miss the Eid Namaz either the imam will perform Salaam or the time will reach midday, then Tayammum is allowed in both situations.
  9. If you are not the organiser of a funeral procession and fear that if you wait to perform ablution you will miss the Janaza Namaz the Tayammum is allowed.

The method of Tayammum

After making the intention of Tayammum, say 'Bismillahirrahma Nirrahim' and press both hands on to the ground which contains items of pure substance. If a lot of substance gets stuck on the hands then hit the hands together so the excess is shaken off. Then with these hands wipe over the whole face. Repeat the action again and wipe over both arms from the fingernails to and including the elbows, and this is' the Tayammum completed. The wiping of the head and feet are not performed in Tayammum. There are only three aspects which are obligatory in Tayammum, the rest are Sunnat,

Obligatory (Farz) aspects in Tayammum

  1. To make the intention. Meaning to have the intention of performing ablution or bath or both to gain cleanliness. If the intention of Tayammum is made after hitting the hands on the ground, then the Tayammum will not count. The intention of Tayammum in the heart is obligatory (Farz), also it is better to say it with the tongue. For example, Say "I am performing Tayammum to rid of the impurities of being without bathing or being without ablution so that my Namaz will be allowed" then say 'Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim' and hit the hands on the soil.
  2. To rub your hands all over the face so that no hair or skin will remain untouched, otherwise the Tayammum will not count.
  3. To rub your hands over both arms including the elbows. If any part is left untouched then the Tayammum will not count.

Materials that can and cannot be used for Tayammum

Tayammum can be done with material which is from the earth, and whatever is not from the earth cannot be used to perform Tayammum.

Actions that break Tayammum
Materials that can and cannot be used for Tayammum

Actions that break Tayammum

Whatever actions break the ablution or make bathing necessary also break the Tayammum. The additional aspect is to have power over water again will also break the Tayammum.


If someone is wearing special socks they would therefore when they perform Wuzu, do not wash their feet but in fact just wipe their wet fingers over the Khuf then this is allowed.

There are a few qualifications for performing Masah;

  1. The Khuf are long enough that the ankles are covered. If they are a few fingers short but the heel is covered, then the Masah is allowed.
  2. They are stuck to the feet, so that when wearing them you can walk freely.
  3. They are made from leather or at least the sole is made from leather and the rest made from other thick coated material.
  4. They must be put on after performing Wuzu. Meaning if you put them on and had not performed Wuzu, then you must take them off when you perform Wuzu.
  5. They must not be worn when bathing is obligatory on you, or wear them and then bathing becomes obligatory for you.
  6. They must be worn only for a maximum fixed time, and this is for a non-traveller one day and one night (24 hours) and for a traveller three days and three nights (72 hours).
  7. They must not be ripped more than the feet's three small toes in size or when walking open more than that gap.

Method of performing Masah (wiping) over Khuf

The method of performing Masah (wiping) over the Khuf is to stretch the right hand and wet three small fingers and from the start of the top of the Khuf from the toes and wipe and it is Sunnat to go upto the shins. Perform the same for the left Khuf.

There are two (Farz) obligatory aspects in performing Masah over the Khuf;

  1. Every Khufs Masah must be at least the same size as the three small fingers.
  2. The Masah must be on top of the Khuf.

There are three Sunnats in performing Masah,

  1. To use the hands three finger's full length.
  2. To stretch the fingers and wipe all the way upto the sh'ns.
  3. When performing the Masah keep the fingers stretched apart.

What aspects breaks the Masah over the Khuf

The actions that break the Masah(wiping) over the Khuf are as follows;


What is menstruation ?

After a female becoming a teenager, the blood that comes out from the vagina on a fixed time basis and is not due to childbirth or illness, is known as menstruation or period (Haiz). If the blood is due to illness then it is known as Istihaza, if it is due to childbirth then it is known as Nifas.

Age when menstruation begins

The age of the menstruation cycle beginning is at least nine and the finishing age is fifty-five. The female is known in this age is called 'Aa'is' and this age is called 'Sun'aayas'[Alamgiri].

Colour of menstruation


Definition of Nifas and time Nifas meaning the blood discharged by a woman after childbirth. It has no minimum time, meaning even if one drop of blood comes out from when the child has half come out then this is Nias. The maximum time for Nifas is forty days and nights.


Smething is missing here in Wuzu and Namaz then she is not a Ma'zoor.


All people who have a certain illness within a time, whereby with Wuzu they cannot pray full Namaz and the time passes but this illness does not stop, is known as a Ma'zoor. Meaning in all the time the illness did not stop so that they could perform Wuzu and pray Farz Namaz. The rule of a Ivla'zoor is that they perform Wuzu and can pray any Namaz within a Namaz time period and their Wuzu would not break due to that illness. For example, illnesses like continuous drops of urine, continuous releasing of wind from the back passage, releasing water from a hurting eye, releasing of puss from a wound or mole or water coming out of the ear or navel etc. these are all illnesses that break the Wuzu, and if a full Namaz time goes pass and after every effort the illness does not stop, therefore you cannot become clean from it and therefore cannot pray Namaz, then this has proven that you have an illness that cannot be stopped and therefore whilst this illness continues you are a Ma'zoor. For example, a time of Namaz has passed for a woman whereby Istihaza did not give her enough time that she could become clean from it and perform Wuzu and pray Farz Namaz. In the second Namaz time, she gains enough time to perform Wuzu but blood drops once or twice then she is still a Ma'zoor, because once an illness has been proven that it can't be stopped during one Namaz period but then does not continue to be causing a problem but sometimes in a second period it returns then the person will remain a Ma'zoor as it is not necessary for the illness (once proven) to continue all the time and break Wuzu For an illness to be proven it is necessary that one whole period passed without being free from the illness that causes Wuzu to break, then in the second period all the time is not necessary but once is sufficient for them to remain a Ma'zoor.


There are two types of impure items. Firstly there is the item that is in itself impure which is known as impurity, such as, alcohol, faeces, urine, dung etc. these items until they keep to it's original form, they cannot be made clean. Alcohol will remain impure as long as it stays as alcohol, and if it is made into vinegar then it becomes clean. Cow dung will remain impure until it is burnt and turned into ashes, then it is clean [Muniya, etc.].

Secondly there is the item which is itself not impure, but due to having impurity stuck on it, it becomes impure, such as, a piece of clothing has had alcohol on it, the clothing is now impure. To clean these items there are various methods. Many will become clean after washing them, some will become clean after drying, some after shaking, some after burning, some after tanning and some after cutting.

Method of cleaning solid impurities

The order on the colour or smell remaining after cleaning

Method of cleaning liquid impurities

Squeezing and it's limit

If the impurity is a liquid, then to wash it three times and also adequately squeeze the clothing three times will clean the item. To squeeze it adequately means that every person squeezes the item to their own strength and ability, so that if the item was squeezed again more drops would not fall. If you think of the clothing and do not squeeze it adequately, then the item will not become clean [Alamgiri, Qazi khan].

Method of cleaning items that cannot be squeezed

Method of cleaning steel, copper and glassware products

Method of cleaning a mirror etc.

Method of cleaning hide

Method of cleaning honey

Method of cleaning oil and butler

The method of cleaning oil if it becomes impure is to perform the same process as for the honey. There is also another method and that is to add the same amount of water as the oil and stir it well, then take out the oil and throw away the water, repeat this three times and the oil will become clean [Muniya, Alamgiri]. If butter or lard become impure then use one of the methods as above and the butter or lard will become clean.

How are trees or walls. Herb roots, bricks cleaned ?


Respects of Istinja

The method of istinja and the prayer before it

When you go to perform urination or excretion then it is Mustahhab (desirable) to pray this Dua outside the toilet

"Bismillahi Allahumma inni A'oozoobika Minal Khuboothi Wal 'Khabaa'iss"

Then first put your left foot inside the toilet room and when you get near the toilet then remove the clothing from the body but do not remove more than necessary. Then separate the feet and sit down and give weight to your left foot and sit quietly with your head lowered and relieve yourself. When you have relieved yourself, then men should shake their penis slowly from left to right, back and fourth so that all the drops of urine come out. Then you should clean it with a dhela (handful of soil or sand etc.) and then before standing fully upright pull up your clothing. Then step out of the toilet first with your right foot and when you have come outside the toilet, pray this Dua;

"Ghufranakal Hamdo Lillahil Lazi Ath'haba Anni Mayoo Thi'nee Wa Amsaka Alla Ma Yan'fa'ni"

Dua for entering the washroom

Then go into the washroom after praying this Dua;

"Bismilla'hil Azueem Wa Bihamdihi Wah Hamdo Lillahi Alaa Deenil Islami Allahumaj AIni Minatawwa Beena Wajaini Minal Mutat'tah'hireenalazina La Khawfun Alaihim Walahum Yahzanoon"

Firstly wash your hands three times, then pour the water with your right hand and wash with your left hand, and keep the can of water upright so that the water does not splash. Then first of all wash the front parts and then wash the rear part (anus). When washing the rear put pressure on with your breath and put a Dhela and wash the part thoroughly so that after washing there is no smell remaining on your hand. Then with a clean cloth dry the area and if you do not have a cloth then continue wiping the are until no water is left dripping, and if you are doubtful then shake the water off with a hand towel. Then after leaving the washroom pray this Dua;

" Alhamdolilla Hillazee Ja'alaI'Ma'a Tahooraw Wal Islama Nooraw WaQa'idaw Wadaleelan ilallahi Ta'ala Wa'ilaa Jannaatin Na'eem Allahumma Hassin Farji Wa Tahhir Qalbi Wa Mahiss Junubi"

Difference in winter and Summer for using a Dhela

After excretion, for a male, the Mustahhab method of using a Dhela in Summer is to use the first Dhela starting from the front and then taking it to the rear. The second one starting at the rear then taking it to the front and finally the third Dhela from the front taking it to the rear. In the winter start the first Dhela from the rear and then take it to the front, second vice-versa and third the same as the first.

Leftover water from wuzu

Leftover water from washing